Investigation into the provenance of museum collections in connection with the theft, confiscation and sale of objects under duress between 1933 and 1945.

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Rijksmuseum

Museumstraat 1 1071 XX Amsterdam www.rijksmuseum.nl

Investigation results

This museum has 21 objects with a potentially problematic provenance.

Result of this investigation

Since the Museum Acquisitions From 1933 Onwards Project was launched in 2012, the Rijksmuseum has been researching the sub-collections of paintings, drawings and the Mannheimer collection. In the coming years, the Rijksmuseum’s other sub-collections will be investigated. The last update of this page on the museum acquisitions website was published on 1 June 2021. All results from the provenance research and the reports will be available for consultation on the Rijksmuseum website, www.rijksmuseum.nl.

Given the scope of the collection and the volume of acquisitions since 1933, the Rijksmuseum’s research is being conducted in phases. Initially the research focused on the sub-collection of paintings (923 works) acquired in the periods 1933-1939 and 1949-2012. An addendum of paintings acquired between 1940-1948 followed in 2014. Subsequently, a first part of the sub-collection of drawings (app. 19,000 works) was examined by consulting all internal sources on the basis of which conclusive provenances could be determined.

As of 2015 the collection of Dr Fritz Mannheimer (Stuttgart 1890-Vaucresson 1939) was thoroughly investigated. Structured provenance research of the full collection was conducted over a two-year period. Fritz Mannheimer acquired works of art in Germany and occupied territory in the 1930s, among other places. Accordingly, his collection has an increased risk of including objects with an unclear provenance. The Mannheimer collection in the Rijksmuseum totals 1703 inventory items, 185 of which with an unclear provenance. Moreover, the provenance of the collection of Franz and Margarethe Oppenheimer was found to be unclear as a result of this research, as was that of one object from the collection of Maximilian Benedikt Heyum Freiherr von Goldschmidt-Rothschild.

Although the collection of applied arts will be investigated in the coming years, a pair of silver salt-cellars by Johannes Lutma has already been included in the report. These salt-cellars were part of a set of four with the same provenance. The other two have been identified in the Amsterdam Museum’s provenance investigation as having a problematic provenance. The set of salt-cellars most likely came from the confiscated estate of Emma Budge.

Objects

The museum reports the following paintings with an unclear provenance; of them, the rightful owner can be identified for only a single one. They were acquired by the museum in the periods 1933-1939 and 1949-2012:

  • Anonymous (copy of Joseph Vivien), Portrait of Maximilian II Maria Emanuel (1662-1726), Elector of Bavaria, at the Battle of Mohács against the Turks was auctioned at Mak van Waay on consignment from J.J. Thole in 1942. It is unknown when and from whom J.J. Thole acquired the painting.
  • Anonymous, Chariclea ended up in Germany via the Dutch art trade in 1944. It is unclear how this painting was traded in the Netherlands before that time.
  • Moritz Calisch, Two Women in Italian Costume was possibly sold at the Amsterdam auction house Van Braam in 1943 and registered in the collection by the Rijksmuseum in 1970. It is unknown who consigned it to this auction and where the work was located in the period 1943-70.
  • Adriaen Hanneman, William III (1650-1702), Prince of Orange, as a Child. It cannot be determined whether the painting was in the possession of the Hohenzollern family during World War II or in the collection of Alexandra Zubkow’s heirs. Alexandra Zubkow’s heirs possibly resided in palaces in Potsdam and Berlin, which were looted during the war.
  • Jan Adam Kruseman, Salome with the Head of John the Baptist was sold at the Amsterdam auction house Van Braam in 1943. It is unknown who consigned it and where it was located in the period 1943-60.
  • Anton Mauve, Portrait of Pieter Frederik van Os, was in the G.A. van Rede collection in Bennekom before 1945. After World War II, Van Rede reported the painting missing to the Netherlands Art Property Foundation. The museum is trying to contact the heirs.
  • Jan Mijtens, Govert van Slingelandt, Lord of Dubbeldam with his First Wife Christina van Beveren and their Two Sons was sold in 1942 at the Amsterdam auction house Mak van Waay on consignment from J.J. Thole. It is unknown when and from whom J.J. Thole acquired the painting.
  • Ary Scheffer, Self-portrait at Age 43 was informally donated to the Rijksmuseum in a poor condition in 1979 by visitors who had acquired it during World War II.

Acquisitions between 1940-1948

The museum reports the following paintings with an unclear provenance acquired by the museum between 1940 and 1948:

  • Anonymous (School of Dirck Barendsz), The Adoration of the Shepherds was acquired from H.A. Wetzlar, but it is not known from whom, how and when he obtained this painting. All that is known is that the painting was in his collection until 1943.
  • Giacinto Diana, The Continence of Scipio was purchased during World War II from a dealer who, despite extensive provenance research, remains unknown. Hence, the provenance information ‘Capri’ is also unverifiable.
  • Johannes van Dregt, Scene with Bacchantes was sold at auction house De Zon in Amsterdam in November 1943. It is not known who consigned this work.
  • Jan Ekels (I), The so-called Boerenverdriet on the Spui in Amsterdam was acquired by R. May, but it is not clear from whom, where and when. The painting was in Germany in 1928.
  • Govert Flinck, Rembrandt as a Shepherd with a Staff and Flute. It is not known what happened to this painting between 1941 and its acquisition in September 1942.
  • Jacob van Loo, Scene with Bacchantes was offered on the German art market in 1931 and resurfaced in New York in 1942.
  • Paulus Moreelse, Esau Selling his Birthright. It is unclear from whom, how and when Mr Peters acquired this painting.
  • Auguste Antoine Joseph Payen, House of the Assistant Resident of Banyuwangi (East Java), Mr J. Ph. van Zuylen van Nyevelt, in was in the possession of the Jewish dealer Jadwiga Vuijk, née Reich Rosenblatt, though when is unclear. Moreover, it cannot yet be conclusively determined whether the transaction with the museum was voluntary and whether it was acquired for a reasonable sum.
  • Nicolaas Pieneman, Portrait of a Man, Perhaps Petrus Augustus de Genestet (1829-1861) was in the possession of A.J. Rehorst. It is unknown when, how and from whom he acquired the painting when he sold it to the museum during wartime.

The collection of Dr. Fritz Mannheimer

Example of objects from the Dr Fritz Mannheimer collection:

  • Anonymous, Standard for an Altar Cross. Formerly collection Maximilian Benedikt Heyum Freiherr von Goldschmidt-Rothschild.
  • Meissener Porzellan Manufaktur, Milk Jug, with Multicoloured Painted Chinoiseries. Formerly in the collection of Franz and Margarethe Oppenheimer. This object and all other objects from the Oppenheimer collection that were in the Rijksmuseum have been restituted.
  • Meissener Porzellan Manufaktur, Seated Figure (Pagoda). Formerly in the collection of Franz and Margarethe Oppenheimer. This object has been restituted.

Read the research report Mannheimer

Information from previous research (report Museum Acquisitions 1940-1948)

View reaction of Rijksmuseum in the report Museale acquisitions 1940-1948 which was published in 1999 in response to the previous museum research.

About this museum and its collection

Amsterdam’s Rijksmuseum is the country’s principal museum of Dutch art and history, with a survey of Dutch heritage from the Middle Ages to the present day. Its rich and diverse collection includes paintings, sculpture, applied art, prints and drawings. Highlights of the collection include works by Rembrandt,Vermeer and other famous seventeenth-century Dutch masters.

Objects

Two silver salt cellars

Two silver salt cellars

Artist/ Creator
Johannes Lutma I
Title
Two silver salt cellars
Year
1639
Technique
Silver, parcel gilt
Size
h. 24, b. 12 cm
Inventorynumber
BK 1960-13 a en BK 1960-13 b
Description

Two silver salt cellars, the bowl supported by a boy seated on a dolphin. (Weight 802 grams)

Category
Applied art
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

The salt cellars are probably part of the collection confiscated from the heirs of Emma Budge.

Explanation

These salt cellars are most likely...

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Maximilian II Maria Emanuel (1662-1726), Elector of Bavaria, at the Battle of Mohacs against the Turks

Maximilian II Maria Emanuel (1662-1726), Elector of Bavaria, at the Battle of Mohacs against the Turks

Artist/ Creator
Anonymous (copy after Joseph Vivien)
Title
Maximilian II Maria Emanuel (1662-1726), Elector of Bavaria, at the Battle of Mohacs against the Turks
Year
1710-1750
Technique
Oil on copper
Size
65 x 45 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-4016 (NK 1804)
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is unclear when and from whom J.J. Thole acquired this painting, its provenance is uncertain.

Explanation

This painting belongs to the...

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Frederik van Os

Pieter Frederik van Os

Artist/ Creator
Anton Mauve
Title
Pieter Frederik van Os
Year
1855
Technique
Oil on paper on panel
Size
20,8 x 17,4 cm
Inventorynumber
Inv. nr. SK-A-4156
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

This painting is included because it belonged to the collection stolen from G.A. van Rede, Bennekom.

Explanation

Mr van Rede registered the...

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Salome with the Head of John the Baptist

Salome with the Head of John the Baptist

Artist/ Creator
Jan Adam Kruseman
Title
Salome with the Head of John the Baptist
Year
c. 1861
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
120 x 90 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-5009
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

The provenance of the painting is unclear since the identity of the person who consigned it to Fred. A. van Braam’s auction in 1943 is no longer...

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Willem III (1650-1702), Prince of Orange as a Child

Willem III (1650-1702), Prince of Orange as a Child

Artist/ Creator
Adriaen Hanneman
Title
Willem III (1650-1702), Prince of Orange as a Child
Year
1654
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
135 x 95 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3889
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

The provenance of the painting is uncertain, since how and when it passed from the possession of the Hohenzollern family and came to belong to Reinheldt art gallery in...

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Self Portrait at 43

Self Portrait at 43

Artist/ Creator
Ary Scheffer
Title
Self Portrait at 43
Year
c. 1838
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
89 x 70 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-4748
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

The provenance is unclear since no information is available about how or when the unknown donor acquired the work during the...

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Govert van Slingelandt (1623-90), Lord of Dubbeldam, with his First Wife Christina van Beveren and the Two Sons

Govert van Slingelandt (1623-90), Lord of Dubbeldam, with his First Wife Christina van Beveren and the Two Sons

Artist/ Creator
Jan Mijtens
Title
Govert van Slingelandt (1623-90), Lord of Dubbeldam, with his First Wife Christina van Beveren and the Two Sons
Year
1657
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
99,5 x 86,5 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-4013 (NK 1792)
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is unclear when and from whom J.J. Thole acquired this painting, its provenance is uncertain.

Explanation

This painting belongs to the...

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Chariclea

Chariclea

Artist/ Creator
Anonymous (Northern Netherlands)
Title
Chariclea
Year
c. 1660
Technique
Oil on panel
Size
75 x 55 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-4017 (NK2928)
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

The provenance of painting is uncertain since it is unclear when and from whom Vitale Bloch or art dealer D.A Hoogendijk acquired the...

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Two Women in Italian Costume

Two Women in Italian Costume

Artist/ Creator
Moritz Calisch
Title
Two Women in Italian Costume
Year
1851
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
118,5 x 90,5 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-4181
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

The provenance of the painting is unclear since the identity of the person who consigned it to Fred. A. van Braam’s auction in 1943 is no longer known. In fact...

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Adoration of the shepherds

Adoration of the shepherds

Artist/ Creator
Anonymous (School of Dirck Barendsz)
Title
Adoration of the shepherds
Year
1550-99
Technique
Oil on panel
Size
205 x 142 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3460
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is unclear how, when, and from whom Hans Alfred Wetzlar acquired this painting, its provenance is uncertain. This painting was part of his collection until...

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The continence of Scipio

The continence of Scipio

Artist/ Creator
Giacinto Diana
Title
The continence of Scipio
Year
1765-1770
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
63 x 77 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3465
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since this painting was bought during the war from a dealer whose identity remains unknown despite extensive provenance research, its provenance is uncertain....

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The so-called Boerenverdriet on the Spui in Amsterdam

The so-called Boerenverdriet on the Spui in Amsterdam

Artist/ Creator
Jan Ekels (I)
Title
The so-called Boerenverdriet on the Spui in Amsterdam
Year
1750-1781
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
40 x 48,5 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3475
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is unclear when, where, and from whom May acquired this painting, and the fact that it was in Germany in 1928, its provenance is...

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Rembrandt as shepherd with staff and flute

Rembrandt as shepherd with staff and flute

Artist/ Creator
Govert Flinck
Title
Rembrandt as shepherd with staff and flute
Year
1636
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
74,5 x 64 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3451
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is not known what happened to the painting between 1941 and when it was acquired in September 1942, its provenance is uncertain.

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Esau selling his birthright

Esau selling his birthright

Artist/ Creator
Paulus Moreelse
Title
Esau selling his birthright
Year
1609
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
124 x 160,7 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3455
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is unclear when, how, and from whom Mr Peters acquired this painting, its provenance is uncertain.

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House of the Assistant Resident of Banyuwangi, East Java (Jawa Timur)

House of the Assistant Resident of Banyuwangi, East Java (Jawa Timur)

Artist/ Creator
Auguste Antoine Joseph Payen
Title
House of the Assistant Resident of Banyuwangi, East Java (Jawa Timur)
Year
1828
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
53 x 65 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3452
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is unclear how and when the Jewish Jadwiga Vuijk, née Reich Rosenblatt, acquired this painting and because it cannot be irrefutably determined whether...

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Bacchic Scene

Bacchic Scene

Artist/ Creator
Johannes van Dregt
Title
Bacchic Scene
Year
1780-1807
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
96,5 x 140 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3463
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is not known who put the painting up for auction, its provenance is uncertain.

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Scene with Bacchantes

Scene with Bacchantes

Artist/ Creator
Jacob van Loo
Title
Scene with Bacchantes
Year
1653
Technique
Oil on canvas
Size
63 x 55 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3483
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since the painting was offered on the German art market in 1931 and only surfaced again in New York in 1942, its provenance is uncertain.

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Portrait of a man, perhaps Petrus Augustus de Genestet (1829-61)

Portrait of a man, perhaps Petrus Augustus de Genestet (1829-1861)

Artist/ Creator
Nicolaas Pieneman
Title
Portrait of a man, perhaps Petrus Augustus de Genestet (1829-1861)
Year
1830-1860
Technique
Oil on panel
Size
40 x 33 cm
Inventorynumber
SK-A-3466
Category
Paintings
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

Since it is unclear when and how the painting had come into the possession of A.J. Rehorst when he sold it to the museum in wartime, its provenance is uncertain.

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Anonymous, Stand for an altar cross

Stand for an altar cross

Artist/ Creator
Anonymous, Maasland
Title
Stand for an altar cross
Year
c. 1170
Technique
Bronze
Size
h 16,4 cm × l 14,1 cm × b 13 cm
Inventorynumber
BK-16920
Category
Applied art
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

This stand belonged to Maximilian Benedikt Heyum Freiherr von Goldschmidt-Rothschild.

Explanation

De provenance of this object is unclear,...

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Milk jug

Milk Jug

Artist/ Creator
Meissener Porzellan Manufaktur
Title
Milk Jug
Year
Ca. 1730 - ca. 1735
Technique
Porcelain
Size
h 14,6 cm × b 11,9 cm × d 9,5 cm
Inventorynumber
BK-17362
Category
Applied art
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

This milk jug belonged to the Jewish collector couple Franz and Margarethe Oppenheimer.

Explanation 

This object is one of 184 inventory...

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Seated figure (Pagoda)

Seated figure (Pagoda)

Artist/ Creator
Meissener Porzellan Manufaktur
Title
Seated figure (Pagoda)
Year
Ca. 1720 - ca 1725
Technique
Hard-paste porcelain
Size
h. 8,2 cm
Inventorynumber
BK-17479
Category
Applied art
Museum
Rijksmuseum

Investigation results

Conclusion

This milk jug belonged to the Jewish collector couple Franz and Margarethe Oppenheimer.

Explanation 

This object is one of 184 inventory...

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